Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The paper discusses the configuration options of port waters and channels affected by deposition in coastal flow of sediment transport (with/without waves). Performed typing the possible configuration options structures, hydro- and litho-dynamics conditions that lead to reducing the depth of areas and channels. Proposed the engineering method of port areas and channels deposition calculating depending on their configuration, nature and intensity of currents.

Ключевые слова:
port waters, navigation channels, dredging, waves and currents alongshore sediment transport, deposition.

I. Introduction


When designing ports, one of the important tasks is to forecast deposition in port waters and approach channels, sandy or pebbly sediments. On the basis of the forecast are determined the frequency and volume of maintenance dredging works.

In the modern literature largely discussed the deposition of approach channels to ports [1-14] and several lesser the deposition of port areas [15-18].

In all the works it is noted that the deposition of approach occurs as a result of speed reduction of alongshore current over the channel due to the increase of depth and, respectively, reduce the carrying capacity of the water flow. In addition, port facilities solid structures may stop completely or partially of alongshore sediment transport with the formation of accumulative forms. In the number of works [9, 11-14, 17-18] for some configurations of hydraulic structures describes physics of the process. However, the classification (typing) options deposition in port waters and approach channels, as well as the general engineering method of calculation is missing.


II. Classification of structures configurations, 
at which there is a deposition of  water areas and channels 


Deposition in port waters and approach channels occurs for the following reasons:

1. The interception completely or partially of alongshore sediment transport by port moles of solid structure with the formation in the waters of the berths of accumulative forms of the type "incoming angle" – Fig. 1, a). In such instances when unidirectional sediment transport may occur grassroots erosion of the shore. In the case of multi-directional sediment transport, incoming angles are formed on both sides of the mole.

2. Unloading of an alongshore sediment transport in a wave shadow of island port with formation of spit – Fig. 1 b). In such cases at the unidirectional alongshore stream of deposits, there is a local washout of the coast. In case of multidirectional streams of deposits, the spit can degenerate in tombolo (connected with breakwater).

3. Unloading of alongshore sediment transport on the approach channel when reducing the speed of current at the expense of increase in the area of its live section on dredging of the channel – Fig. 2 a).

4. Unloading of an alongshore sediment transport in the water area of dredging or on the approach channel at reduction of speed of an alongshore current as a result of at first its narrowing with increase in speed and, respectively, a stream turbidity, and then its expansion with reduction of speed and loss of deposits. Arises at considerable promotion of protective piers in the sea concerning the line of the coast - Fig. 2 b). Thus additional reduction of current is caused also by increase in depths in dredging zones.

5. Deposition of port water as a result of the ingress of sediment under the influence of wave and wind currents – Fig. 3 a).

6. Deposition of dredging water area, or of the approach channel by sediments of the river flood jet – Fig. 3 b).

It should be noted [23] that the waves and currents have the opposite effect on  alongshore sandy sediment transport in the vicinity of cross shore  constructions. 

Under the influence of slantwise suitable waves sandy sediments tend to form a cross before the construction of the "incoming angle", that is accumulative form. At the grass-roots plot has place grass-roots erosion due to sediment deficit in alongshore current.

At the same time, current is forms of the cycle before the construction, seeking to erode the shore. Skirting the structure with sea side during "tapering" and its speed increases, it becomes saturated with suspended sediment. After bypass construction, the jet of flow expands, its velocity decreases and the sediment fall out in the head part of the structure on the leeward of him. With bottom-side of construction is formed the second cycle, seeking to form an accumulative form.


III. Models  of hydro- and  litho-dynamics of a coastal zone of the sea


For modeling of port water areas deposition it is necessary to define the settlement equations describing the physical processes given above.

The estimated waves elements in the coastal zone can be determined in accordance with [29, 32].

Fig. 4. The schematized diagrams of alongshore transport of pebble and sandy deposits

V. Conclusions 


1. Classified configurations of the port waters and approach channels from the point of view of their deposition by sediment wave field or not wave currents.

2. Defined theoretical principles and computational formulas, allowing to estimate the deposition of water area and approach channel of the port having the configuration of structures according to Fig. 1 - 3, or their combinations.

3. Developed engineering calculation methods of deposition of water areas and approach channels.

4. Developed methods were applied for calculations of deposition of water areas and approach channels to a set of ports.

Work performed within the state budget scientific research work № 2614 "Development of mathematical models of interaction between waves and hydraulic structures" of Sochi state University.

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